A gifted/talented student is a child or youth who performs at or shows the potential for performing at a remarkably high level of accomplishment when compared to others of the same age, experience, or environment and who
exhibits high performance capability in an intellectual, creative, or artistic area;
possesses an unusual capacity for leadership; or excels in a specific academic field. (Texas Education Code 29.121)
For this assignment, please do the following:
Step 1: Read pages 16-22 and pages 52-59 (as identified by the PDF tool bar page numbers) in the Gifted and Talented Assignment Guide. FOT 2B Gifted and Talented Assignment Guide.pdf
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Step 2: Imagine that you have a gifted and talented student in your class. Find a sample lesson plan, this could be one that you submitted for a previous assignment, and modify it by adding a Tier 1 and a Tier 2 Activity.
Step 3: Submit this assignment as a Word document and highlight and label the Tier 1 and Tier 2 assignments that you have added.
READING STRATEGIES FOR
ADVANCED PRIMARY READERS Texas Reading Initiative Task Force for the
Education of Primary Gifted Children
Edited by Bertie Kingore
COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Copyright © TEA staff, 2004 . The Materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of the Texas Education Agency and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of the Texas Education Agency, except under the following conditions:
1) Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts’ and schools’ educational use without obtaining permission from the Texas Education Agency;
2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only without obtaining written permission of the Texas Education Agency;
3) Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way;
4) No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged.
Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non- educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from the Texas Education Agency and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty fee.
A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S
The Texas Primary Reading Initiative Task Force for the Education of Primary Children
wishes to express its gratitude to:
• Evelyn Levsky Hiatt, Senior Director, Advanced Academic Services, Texas Education Agency and
• Ann Wi n k, Director of Elementary Gifted Education, Advanced Academic Services, Te x a s
Education A g e n c y
for their vision of excellence and dedication to young advanced and gifted children.
A RT AND GRAPHIC DESIGN
J e ffery Kingore
Art and graphic design copyright 2002 by Jeffery Kingore
Reprinted in this text with permission
E D I TO R I A L A S S I S TA N T S
The websites referenced in this text do not necessarily reflect
the positions and philosophies of the Texas Education A g e n c y.
These text materials are copyrighted by and the property of the State of Texas and may not be reproduced
without the written permission of the Texas Education Agency, except under the following conditions:
1 . Any portion reproduced will be used exclusively for educational purposes;
2 . Any portion reproduced will be reproduced in its entirety and not altered in any form; and
3 . No monetary charge will be made for the reproduction of the documents or materials contained
within them, except for a reasonable charge covering the cost to reproduce and distribute them.
Texas Reading Initiative Task Force for the Education of Primary Gifted Children
2 0 0 0 – 2 0 0 2
MEM B E R S
D r. Bertie Kingore, Chair Consultant, Professional Associates Publishing, A u s t i n
D r. Amanda Batson Texas Association for Gifted and Talented, A u s t i n
D r. Shirley V. Dickson Director of Statewide Curriculum Initiatives, Texas Education A g e n c y, A u s t i n
Krys Goree Program Director of Texas Beginning Educator Support System (TXBESS) and Gifted
Education Consultant, Baylor University, Wa c o
Susan Spates Coordinator of Gifted and Talented, Pasadena ISD, Pasadena
Ann Tr u l l D i r e c t o r, Elementary and Gifted Education, Paris ISD, Paris
Ann Wi n k Director of Elementary Gifted Education, Division of Advanced Academic Services,
Texas Education A g e n c y, A u s t i n
D r. Keith Yo s t Program Director Humanities, CREST, Tomball ISD, To m b a l l
Laura Yo u n g Talented and Gifted Facilitator, Killeen ISD, Killeen
While the Texas Student Success Initiative was created to ensure that all Te x a s children are able to read on or above grade level by the end of third grade, many Texas primary-aged children already read at advanced levels. These children should also have the right to progress academically.
The Texas Reading Initiative Task Force for the Education of Primary Gifted Children has prepared this publication to assist the classroom teacher in identifying children who may be advanced learners and in preparing reading activities appropriate to their learning level. Following the Texas tradition of supporting reading instruction based on scientific research, this work is based on empirical evidence surrounding these children’s specific learning needs.
Reading Strategies for Advanced Primary Readers, produced by the Texas Reading Initiative Task Force for the Education of Primary Gifted Children, expands teacher knowledge about the characteristics and needs of advanced and gifted readers. In addition, it explains how to differentiate reading instruction for these children and provides the classroom teacher with helpful strategies and ideas.
In essence, this publication defines yet another dimension of the Texas Student Success Initiative and expands its goal of providing all Texas children with the tools they need to have successful academic careers.
Melanie Pritchett Assistant Commissioner O ffice of Statewide Initiatives Texas Education A g e n c y
The Texas Student Success Initiative is committed to assuring that every child reads at least on grade level by the third grade. It is also committed to assuring that all children continually improve their reading ability and skills. That means stu- dents must be challenged to read progressively more sophisticated material that is commensurate with their abilities.
F r e q u e n t l y, people say that advanced readers “learn to read by themselves.” It is true that many young gifted students come to our schools already able to read material of varying complexity. But this does not mean that the students will sustain their interest in reading or savor the pleasures of reading to discover new ideas, far o ff places, and interesting people. Teachers play a critical role in encouraging young readers to improve their reading skills. It is hoped that this publication will provide a background and activities to assist teachers in providing an appropriate learning environment for even our most gifted readers.
This document reflects the dedication of many Texas educators that all students, even those who already read at or above grade level, must be instructed on how they might better use their considerable skills. It was developed over the course of a year through long meetings, many rewrites, and intense discussion about how teachers might best engage advanced readers so they not only maintain but also expand their repertoire of skills and competencies. The Texas Education A g e n c y thanks the committed volunteers of the Texas Reading Initiative Task Force for the Education of Primary Gifted Children for their assistance.
We hope that readers of this publication will provide feedback about how they used this document and how it might be improved. Anyone may contact us at < g t e d @ t e a . s t a t e . t x . u s > .
Evelyn Hiatt Senior Director Advanced Academic Services
i i i
INTR O D UCT I O N
Customizing language arts instruction to match the individual differences and readiness levels of all children is a demanding task facing primary teachers. The adjustment demands more than flexibility in methods and materials; it requires a belief that each child has the right to progress as rapidly as he or she is capable. Advanced and gifted readers have the ability to read beyond grade level. Thus, they risk receiving less instructional attention when concerned teach- ers struggle to meet the needs of children performing below grade level. While it is critical that all children receive the support necessary to read at least at grade level, students who have achieved this goal must be challenged to continue developing advanced proficiencies.
One factor that discourages the continued reading development of advanced readers is the use of less diff i c u l t books. Chall and Conard (1991) continue to research the match of text difficulty to reader readiness. They found that the reading texts for advanced readers “…provided little or no challenge, since they were matched to students’ grade place- ments, not their reading levels.” Chall, who also researched text difficulty in 1967 and 1983, noted that “This practice of using grade-level reading textbooks for those who read two or more grades above the norm has changed little through the years, although it has been repeatedly questioned” (111).
For decades, educators assumed that primary-aged children who read early or at advanced levels had been pushed by a well-intending adult. The accompanying conventional wisdom has been that these students plateau and read at grade level by third or fourth grade.
Reading Strategies for Advanced Primary Readers 1
Indeed, recent studies document that advanced readers who are limited to a grade-level reading program do regress on standardized tests and in their pace of progress (CAG, 1999; Reis, 2001). At the same time, other studies substantiate that when advanced readers are taught with resources and instruction commensurate with their needs and abilities, regression does not take place. By eliminating work on skills already mastered and progressing through the language arts curriculum at an accelerated pace, students generally continued to extend their reading proficiency ( G e n t r y, 1999; Kulik & Kulik, 1996). The evidence from these research studies demonstrates that to continue optimum learning, advanced readers need to be chal- lenged through instruction at their highest readiness level and most appropriate pace. Teachers need support and strategies to manage this challenge within the diversity of a classroom that also includes a wide range of children who experience d i fficulty in learning to read.
The reading strategies presented in this publication are designed to provide teachers with alternatives and replacement tasks to use in differentiating lessons for students who are assessed as developed on the Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI) or other appropriate reading tests. After teacher modeling and demonstrations, advanced students can use many of these strategies individually or in small groups as teachers provide direct instruction to other groups of students. The strategies and examples in this book have been assembled from teaching experiences based upon research and responses to the nature and needs of gifted learners. All of the strategies relate to the Task Force’s Position Statement that follows.
Texas Reading Initiative Task Force for the
Education of Primary Gifted Children
POSITION STAT E M E N T
The goal of the Texas Reading Initiative is for all children to read on or above
grade level by the end of the third grade. Although this goal is critical, it is
minimal relative to students who read well. The Texas Reading Initiative
does not intend for advanced readers to stagnate or regress. Rather, the
objective is that all students, including advanced readers, receive instruction
and materials commensurate with their abilities. Advanced readers must
progress at their appropriate rate, which is typically more than one grade
level per year. The result of ignoring gifted readers is educationally and emo-
tionally unjust to these children.
I n t r o d u c t i o n 2
The Task Force also developed the following eleven Reading Recommendations for Advanced Learners. As each strategy is discussed throughout this publication, the applicable Reading Recommendations are listed.
Texas Reading Initiative Task Force for the
Education of Primary Gifted Children
Reading Recommendations for Advanced Learners
1 . Use preinstruction assessment to accurately determine students’ instructional and independent levels of reading.
2 . Use a variety of assessments beyond standardized achievement tests to document students’ progress and guide instruction.
3 . Use strategies geared to gifted students’ instructional needs including curriculum compacting, advanced content, appropriate pacing, and above grade-level materials.
4 . Focus on far greater depth and complexity. 5 . Incorporate into reading programs rich, inviting tasks requiring spatial
as well as analytical and abstract thinking. 6 . Encourage students to develop more complex, high-level comprehen-
sion and reach advanced interpretations. 7 . Encourage and support advanced levels of vocabulary and word study. 8 . Promote students’ research using technology to generate original i n v e s-
tigations and advanced products. 9 . Provide frequent opportunities for students to explore authentic text and
a variety of genres. 1 0 . Allow students to pursue individual interests through reading. 11 . Provide examples of superior work in order to challenge students to
ever-increasing levels of excellence.
This publication briefly discusses the characteristics and needs of advanced and gifted readers and then addresses differentiation strategies for reading instruction. T h e strategies include authentic assessment and documentation, curriculum compacting, tiered assignments, flexible grouping, high-level thinking and inquiry, visual tools for individuals or groups, and vocabulary and word play. Each strategy includes a brief explanation, connections for advanced and gifted learners, discussion of research, and
Reading Strategies for Advanced Primary Readers 3
multiple applications appropriate to primary advanced readers. Printed-text and internet resources are listed at the end of each section. This publication concludes with an Appendix addressing assessment as a guide to reading instruction.
R e f e r e n c e s
CAG (California Association for the Gifted). (1999).
Academic advocacy for the forgotten readers–
Gifted and advanced learners. C o m m u n i c a t o r, 30 (1): 1, 33-35.
Chall, J. & Conard, W. (1991). Should textbooks challenge students? The case for easier or
harder textbooks . New York: Teachers College Press.
G e n t r y, M. (1999). Promoting student achievement and exemplary classroom practices through
cluster grouping: A research-based alternative to heterogeneous elementary classrooms.
Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Ta l e n t e d .
Jackson, N. & Roller, C. (1993). Reading with young children . Storrs, CT: The National Research
Center on the Gifted and Ta l e n t e d .
Kulik, J. & Kulik, C. (1996). Ability grouping and gifted students. In Colangelo, N. & Davis, G.,
Eds. Handbook of gifted education , 2nd ed. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Reis, S. (2001). What can we do with talented readers? Teaching for High Potential, III (1): 1-2.
I n t r o d u c t i o n 4
U NDE RSTAN D I N G AD VANCED AN D
G IFTED READERS
A myriad of characteristics are associated with advanced potential. The brief list shared in this section is spe- cific to behaviors demonstrated in language arts instruction rather than inclusive of all areas of the curriculum. It is not expected that a gifted reader would demonstrate all or even most of the listed behaviors. Hence, the behaviors are worded as to what advanced and gifted readers m a y demonstrate in order to provide teachers with some specific ideas regarding what giftedness looks and sounds like as children learn t o g e t h e r.
The list is organized into seven categories characteristic of advanced and gifted students (Kingore, 2001). All children may demonstrate some of the characteristics in these cate- gories some of the time. For example, all children can and should engage in analytical thinking. However, advanced and gifted students stand out in these categories as their responses are noticed as beyond expectations, more complex, accelerated, and higher-level than the behaviors of age-mates.
Using these seven categories, a distinction between advanced and gifted students becomes clearer. While advanced students may excel in one or more categories, gifted students typically excel in three or more categories. Advanced readers may only demonstrate advanced levels in reading (Jackson et al, 1993), whereas gifted readers may also use their advanced reading ability to accelerate learning in other academic areas.
Reading Strategies for Advanced Primary Readers 5
However bright students may be, they are less likely to demonstrate advanced or gifted performance if learning experiences are limited to the regular, grade-level reading curriculum. Duke (2000) found informational texts almost nonex- istent in first grade classrooms, yet gifted readers demonstrate a voracious appetite for nonfiction. Other studies admonish that instruction in most regular classes includes few, if any, provisions for advanced or gifted learners (Ross, 1993; Westberg et al, 1993).
S t u d e n t s ’ behaviors can be perceived as positive or negative depending upon the situation and the observer (Kingore, 2001). Richert (1997; 1982) noted that behaviors interpreted as negative tend to screen gifted students out of consideration for gifted programs. Slocumb and Payne (2000) stress that teachers must consider both positive and negative behaviors if students from poverty are to be recognized for their gifted potentials. Thus, both the positive and negative manifestations of gift- edness are included in this overview. To accent the relationship between both points of view, the negative behaviors are correlated to the positive gifted characteristic that may be associated.
Categories of Characteristics of Advanced and Gifted Readers
• Reads one to five years or more above grade level • Is articulate; has advanced oral skills and a strong vocabulary • Uses language ability to display leadership qualities • Reads differently for different purposes or materials
• Demonstrates complex and abstract thinking when responding to text • Works an advanced problem to its conclusion • Connects ideas across a range of circumstances and materials • Enjoys logic problems, complex puzzles, and word games
Understanding Advanced and Gifted Readers 6
• Makes philosophical statements that exceed expectations for age • Prefers to work independently • Concentrates/reads for long periods of time on a topic of personal interest • Asks penetrating, intellectual questions
P e r s p e c t i v e
• Is creative or inventive in approaches to problems • Oral interpretations and written responses represent multiple points of view • Draws pictures from unexpected angles and dimensions • Infers possibilities missed by peers: It could also mean that…
Sense of Humor
• Understands humor and puns missed by age peers in a story • Uses figurative language for humorous eff e c t • Has a more sophisticated sense of humor and understands adults’ j o k e s • Enjoys books with multiple layers of humor
S e n s i t i v i t y
• Wants to discuss character motivation with a depth that exceeds the interest of peers
• Expresses concern for human needs in the story, community, and world • Verbally or nonverbally demonstrates concern for the feelings and motivations
of characters, peers, or adults • Seeks resolution for anything perceived as injustice
• Seeks and enjoys advanced-level challenges • Requires minimum repetition for mastery of language arts skills • Displays musical, artistic, numerical, mechanical, or intellectual abilities beyond
expectations for age • Wants to read and develop a depth and complexity of information about a
topic beyond the interests or attention span of most classmates • Accesses data with ease using an unexpected variety of technological tools
and printed resources
Adapted from the K O I (Kingore, 2001)
Reading Strategies for Advanced Primary Readers 7
N E G ATIVE CHARACTERISTICS
• Is self-critical; impatient with failures • • • • Appears bored with routine curriculum • • • • Makes jokes or puns at inappropriate times • • • Refuses to do rote homework • • • • Shows erratic behavior; easily upset; overreacts • • • • Does messy work • • • • Is demanding of teachers’ and other adults’ t i m e • • • • • Dominates other children • • • • • Seems intolerant of others • • • • • Is reluctant to move to another topic • •
Adapted from Richert (1997, 1982) and Kingore (2001).
Expectations to Ponder
Advanced and gifted readers are children first and need to be valued for who they are, not what they are. Consider the following points as you plan appropriate learning experiences to match the readiness level of advanced readers. • The younger the child, the more inconsistent the test behaviors (Jackson &
R o l l e r, 1993; Roedell et al., 1980). • Children may have gifted heads and hearts, but their hands are more age-bound.
Gifted primary children may have poor coordination and may not enjoy lengthy written tasks (Kingore, 2001).
• Many gifted children are asynchronous–the levels of their cognitive, social, and physical development vary. Skills in some academic areas may be significantly above age expectations while other areas may match regular curriculum expec- tations (Silverman, 1993).
Understanding Advanced and Gifted Readers 8
• Children can be advanced in reading and not in other academic areas. All preco- cious readers are not necessarily gifted. All gifted children are not necessarily advanced in reading (Jackson & Roller, 1993).
• The most sophisticated and enthusiastic precocious readers are those children who have driven their parents and teachers to keep up with them (Jackson & Roller, 1993).
• Reading materials for advanced and gifted readers need to be sufficiently challenging and engaging yet appropriate in content. Materials should match both their linguistic and social/emotional development (Polette, 2000; Jackson & Roller, 1993).
• Many talented students become underachievers in later grades if their learning environments are unchallenging (Reis et al, 1995).
• Recognizing that some students have gifted potentials does not make them more important or more valuable. Having gifted potential means that students learn dif – f e r e n t l y than others–not that they are better than others (Kingore, 2001).
Gifted Readers Like…
A classic study by Dole and Adams (1983), surveyed gifted students to elicit their perceptions of the most important attributes of good reading materials. A s u m- mary of those findings is included here.
• Sophisticated beginning-to-read books • Nuanced language • Multidimensional characters • Visually inventive picture books • Playful thinking • Unusual connections; finding patterns and parallels within and among books • Abstractions and analogies • A blend of fantasy and non-fiction • Extraordinary quantities of information about a favorite topic • Books about gifted children
Use this information as a guide to prepare questions for surveying gifted stu- dents in your class or even all of the gifted students in your school. What do they most like or dislike about reading? What do they most want in books and stories? What makes them pick up a book and want to read it? We can better customize reading instruction to challenge advanced readiness levels and motivate gifted learners when we understand how to more closely match their preferences and interest.
Reading Strategies for Advanced Primary Readers 9
R e f e r e n c e s
Dole, J. & Adams, P. (1983). Reading curriculum for gifted readers: A
s u r v e y. Gifted Child Quarterly, 27.
Duke, N. (2000). 3.6 minutes per day: The scarcity of international texts in
first grade. Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 2 0 2 – 2 2 4 .
Kingore, B. (2001). The Kingore observational inventory (KOI), 2nd ed.
Austin: Professional Associates Publishing.
Jackson, N. & Roller, C. (1993). Reading with young children. Storrs, CT: The National Research
Center on the Gifted and Ta l e n t e d .
Polette, N. (2000). Gifted books, gifted readers. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
Reis, S., Hebert, T., Diaz, E., Maxfield, L., & Ratley, M. (1995). Case studies of talented students
who achieve and underachieve in an urban high school. Storrs, CT: National Research
Center on the Gifted and Ta l e n t e d .
Richert, E., Alvino, J., & McDonnel, R. (1982). National report on identification: Assessment and
recommendations for comprehensive identification of gifted and talented youth. Wa s h i n g t o n ,
DC: U.S. Department of Education, Educational Information Resource Center.
Richert, E. (1997). Rampant problems and promising practices in identification. In N. Colangelo &
G. Davis, Eds. Handbook of gifted education. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Roedell, W., Jackson, N., & Robinson, H. (1980). Gifted young children. New York: Te a c h e r s
Ross, P. (1993). National excellence: The case for developing A m e r i c a ’s talent. Washington, DC:
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Silverman, L. (1993). Counseling the gifted and talented. Denver: Love Publishing Company.
Slocumb, P. & Payne, R. (2000). Removing the mask: Giftedness in poverty. Highlands, TX: RFT
P u b l i s h i n g .
Westberg, K., Archambault, F., Jr., Dobyuns, S., & Salvin, T. (1993). The classroom practices
observation study. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 1 6 ( 2 ), 120-146.
Collins, N. and Alex, N. (1995). Gifted readers and reading instruction. ERIC Digest, EDO-CS-95-04.
Halstead, J. (1994). Some of my best friends are books. Dayton, OH: Ohio Psychology Press.
Kingore, B. (2001). Gifted kids, gifted characters, & great books. Gifted Child To d a y, 24 (1), 3 0 – 3 2 .
Polette, N. (2001). Non fiction in the primary grades. Marion, IL: Pieces of Learning.
1 0 Understanding Advanced and Gifted Readers
We b o g r a p h y
Hoagies Gifted Educations. <www. h o a g i e s g i f t e d . o r g >
National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC). <www. n a g c . o r g >
N R C / G T online resources. National Research Center on the Gifted and Ta l e n t e d .
< w w w. g i f t e d . u c o n n . e d u / n r c o n l i n . h t m l >
Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented (TAGT). <www. t x g i f t e d . o r g >
Texas Education Agency (TEA). <www. t e a . s t a t e . t x . u s >
Reading Strategies for Advanced Primary Readers 11
1 2 Understanding Advanced and Gifted Readers
A U T H E N T I C A S S E S S M E N T:
D O C U M E N TAT I O N OF LEARNING
Assessment drives instruction as it documents that learning has occurred and guides which instructional objec- tives to pursue. To be authentic, assessment must be ongoing, occur in natural learning situations, and involve real learning tasks. Those tasks should require students to generate responses rather than choose among descriptors, as in a forced choice response.
It is important to use a balance of data from authentic assessments and standardized tools. A combination of tests and assessments ensures a more accurate consideration of the multiple facets of children’s talents.
For the gifted primary reader, comprehension should be assessed authentically. A test in which students list the name of the main character and bubble-in the main idea lim- its the gifted student’s opportunities to demonstrate more advanced interpretations. Oral summaries via tape recorders, creation of a hyper-studio stack for use by other students, reading/writing logs, and other creative, open-ended options provide broader opportunities to demonstrate comprehension depth and complexity.
Reading Strategies for Advanced Primary Readers 1 3
Assessment tasks provide tangible evidence of students’ understanding and growth before instruction begins (preassessment), as instruction progresses (forma- tive assessment), and at the end of a segment of instruction (summative assessment) ( Tomlinson, 2002). Many teachers need a larger repertoire of authentic assessment procedures to implement with their students, so a variety of options are discussed in this section.
Reading Recommendations for Advanced Learners
Authentic assessment is applicable to the following reading recommendations that are listed on page
three: 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 11 .
Texas State Plan for the Education of Gifted/Talented Students
Several statements in the Texas State Plan (2000) support incorporating authentic assessment for
documentation of the learning achievements of gifted students.
• School districts assure an array of learning opportunities that are commensurate with the abilities
of gifted/talented students… (2.1A; 3.1A; 19 TAC §89.3)
• Program options enable gifted/talented students to work together as a group, work with other
students, and work independently… (2.2A; 19 TAC §89.3(1))
• School districts shall ensure that student assessment and services comply with accountability
standards…(2.6A; 10 TAC §89.5)
• Opportunities are provided for students to pursue areas of interest in selected disciplines through
guided and independent research. (3.1.1R)
• A continuum of learning experiences is provided that leads to the development of advanced-level
products and/or performances. (3.2A; 19 TAC §89.3(2))
• Student progress/performance in programs for the gifted is periodically assessed, and this
information is communicated to parents or guardians. (3.6R)
Overview of Research
Authentic assessment applications are required to provide curriculum and instruction appropriate for advanced and gifted learners. Researchers document the f o l l o w i n g . • Early assessment of a child’s reading and writing skills may facilitate the develop-
ment of appropriate curriculum for both precocious and slow-to-develop readers (Jackson & Roller, 1993).
• Gifted learners should experience consistent opportunities to demonstrate previous mastery before a particular unit of work is taught (Wi n e b r e n n e r, 2001).
1 4 Authentic A s s e s s m e n t
• Gifted readers may be able to read at a higher level than they can comprehend (Assouline, 1997). However, assessment may document that they also compre- hend at a higher level than adults assume.
• A curriculum to develop high potentials assesses both concrete and abstract products. Concrete products (skills and the range of things students produce) are vehicles through which abstract products are developed and applied. A b s t r a c t products are the more enduring and transferable outcomes of learning, including frameworks of knowledge, ideas, problem-solving strategies, attitudes, values, and self-efficacy (Tomlinson et al, 2002).
• E ffective curriculum helps learners monitor their work to ensure competent approaches to problem solving. It involves students in setting goals for their learning and assessing their progress toward those goals (Tomlinson et al, 2002).
A p p l i c a t i o n s
Types of Authentic A s s e s s m e n t
A wide range of assessment processes are appropriate for primary learners. An alphabetized list of assessment techniques, their purposes, and their applications to advanced or gifted readers is shared on the next page. Teachers are encouraged to select from this list the types of assessments that match their instructional priorities and students’ n e e d s .
Uses of Authentic A s s e s s m e n t
✐ Assessment Before Instruction
Many educators associate assessing with testing; however, children may not demonstrate the range of their talents on a test. Hence, preassessment instead of pretesting is used to accent the incorporation of multiple formats in addition to tests in order to gain information about students. (The Appendix of this publication elabo- rates the values and process of using assessment to guide reading instruction.) Results from preassessments must be employed to guide teachers’ use of curriculum
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